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Invalid Mudarabah Transaction

Shortened Question:

Mudarabah transaction

Question:

Assalaamu Alaikum Respected Mufti Saab.

I require your advice and fathwa on a matter.

About four years ago I approached my uncle with a business proposition.  It entailed an investment into a transport venture were a truck with carry goods for a furniture factory.

It was mutually agreed between my uncle and I that he would invest 100 thousand rands into the venture.

He further stated at that point that the money was from a third party and he wanted a fixed amount of R1400 per month as a profit on the money. Also he wanted me to provide a profit and loss schedule every 3-6 months but also stated that should the profit be lower than R1400 per month, I would still have to pay R1400 per month as profit on the 100 thousand.

After everything was agreed my uncle gave me a load of merchandise equivalent to R30thousand instead of cash towards the 100 thousand. , which was suppose to be a cash injection into a transport venture.  Before the balance of 70 thousand was given, I was asked to start paying the R1400 “profit”. Within two months the balance of 70 thousand was given to me.

 

Unfortunately the transport venture did not work out and the money was lost.  At this point I informed my uncle but he told me I have to continue paying the R1400 per month and in my mind I must transfer the amount into whatever else im doing but I have to pay back the 100 thousand.  I continued paying the R1400 so called profit a month since I did not have the 100 thousand to return. About 2 years ago I was asked for part of the 100 thousand. , which I did not have. I could only pay back R5000. I’m now still paying the so called monthly profit.

I received a call from the so called person who the money belonged to stating that she needs her money. I am in no position to pay this at the moment despite me feeling that the money was lost in an unsuccessful venture about two years ago. I still pay the R1400 per month at the insistence of my uncle.

I am in a position where I have accepted all he says just out of respect and the fact that he is a senior in our family.

Recently my told a family member that I still owe the full 95 thousand and if he doesn’t get it then I will answer in the Aakhira for it.

I do have an investment in a joint property which my uncle has a share in and control of and he has stated also that he will hold on to that or take out the R95000 if the property gets sold.

Please advise as I do not know what to do or how to handle the situation.

Jazakallah

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

(Disclaimer)

Ø The Shar`iah ruling herein given is based specifically on the question posed and should be read in conjunction with the question.
Ø Darul iftaa bears no responsibility to any party who may or may not act on this answer and is being hereby exempted from loss or damage howsoever caused.
Ø This answer may not be used as evidence in any Court of Law without prior written consent of the Darul Iftaa

 

You state your uncle gave you R70,000 cash and R30,000 worth of merchandise towards the transport venture. Your uncle put a condition to pay him R1400 every month even if the profit was less than R1400.

The venture in reference is unislamic and invalid for the following reasons.

If one partner provides cash and the other partner provides labour[1], the profit sharing must be specified in percentage and not a fixed amount. In the enquired situation, there was no mention of profit sharing in percentage.

Secondly, the partners will be entitled to a profit only if there was a profit. In the enquired situation there was no profit.

Thirdly, the merchandise of R30,000 had to be sold and the cash should form part of the capital injection. It would not form part of the capital injection directly[2].

Accordingly, it is clear that the venture is reference is invalid. The condition of R1400 every month was invalid[3]. Your uncle had to bear the loss of the venture. He has to pay you back all the money you paid him. You had no dealing with the third party. That is between your uncle and him. Your uncle or the third party has no claim against you.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Hafizurrahman Fatehmahomed

Student Darul Iftaa
Netherlands

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai

 

 

 

[1]

اللباب في شرح الكتاب (2/ 131)

المضاربة: عقدٌ على الشركة بمالٍ من أحد الشريكين وعمل من الآخر، ولا تصح المضاربة إلا بالمال الذي بينا أن الشركة تصح به

الدر المختار شرح تنوير الأبصار وجامع البحار (ص: 545)

وشرعا: (عقد شركة في الربح بمال من جانب) رب المال (وعمل من جانب) المضارب.

[2]

فتح القدير للكمال ابن الهمام (8/ 447)

(وَلَا تَصِحُّ إِلَّا بِالْمَالِ الَّذِي تَصِحُّ بِهِ الشَّرِكَةُ) وَقَدْ تَقَدَّمَ بَيَانُهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ، وَلَوْ دَفَعَ إِلَيْهِ عَرْضًا وَقَالَ بِعْهُ وَاعْمَلْ مُضَارَبَةً فِي ثَمَنِهِ جَازَ لَهُ لِأَنَّهُ يَقْبَلُ الْإِضَافَةَ مِنْ حَيْثُ إِنَّهُ تَوْكِيلٌ وَإِجَارَةٌ فَلَا مَانِعَ مِنَ الصِّحَّةِ،

النتف في الفتاوى للسغدي (1/ 539)

وَلَو دفع عرُوضا الى اُحْدُ مُضَارَبَة قَالَ ابو حنيفَة واصحابه اذا بَاعَ فِيهَا وَاشْترى فَوَقع ربح فَالرِّبْح لرب المَال والوضعية عَلَيْهِ وللمضارب أجر مثله فِيمَا عمله

وَقَالَ الشَّيْخ ان كَانَ ابْتَاعَ بالعروض فَكَذَلِك وان كَانَ بَاعهَا بِدَرَاهِم اَوْ بِدَنَانِير ثمَّ اشْترى بهَا عرُوضا فالدراهم وَالدَّنَانِير هِيَ رَأس المَال وَيكون الرِّبْح بَينهمَا على مَا اشْترطَا والوضيعة على المَال وَالرِّبْح فِي الوضيعة على مَا اشْترطَا والخسران على المَال

درر الحكام شرح غرر الأحكام (2/ 311)

 (وَلَوْ دَفَعَ إلَيْهِ عَرَضًا وَأَمَرَ بِبَيْعِهِ وَعَمَلِ مُضَارَبَةٍ فِي ثَمَنِهِ فَقَبِلَ صَحَّ) لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُضِفْ الْمُضَارَبَةَ إلَى الْعَرْضِ بَلْ إلَى ثَمَنِهِ وَهُوَ مِمَّا تَصِحُّ بِهِ الْمُضَارَبَةُ وَالْإِضَافَةُ إلَى الْمُسْتَقْبَلِ تَجُوزُ لِأَنَّهَا وَكَالَةٌ أَوْ وَدِيعَةٌ أَوْ إجَارَةٌ فَلَا يَمْنَعُ شَيْءٌ مِنْهَا الْإِضَافَةَ إلَيْهِ

درر الحكام شرح غرر الأحكام (2/ 311)

(قَوْلُهُ وَلَوْ دَفَعَ إلَيْهِ عَرْضًا وَأَمَرَ بِبَيْعِهِ وَعَمِلَ مُضَارَبَةً فِي ثَمَنِهِ فَقِيلَ صَحَّ) كَذَا قَالَهُ الزَّيْلَعِيُّ ثُمَّ قَالَ وَلَوْ دَفَعَ إلَيْهِ الْعَرْضَ عَلَى أَنَّ قِيمَتَهُ أَلْفُ دِرْهَمٍ مَثَلًا وَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ رَأْسُ الْمَالِ فَهُوَ بَاطِلٌ اهـ.

ملتقى الأبحر (ص: 445)

وَلَا تصح الْمُضَاربَة إلاّ بِمَال تصح بِهِ الشّركَة وَإِن دفع عرضا وَقَالَ بِعْهُ واعمل فِي ثمنه مُضَارَبَة، أَو قَالَ اقبض مَالِي على فلَان واعمل بِهِ مُضَارَبَة جَازَت أَيْضا.

[3]

مجلة الأحكام العدلية (ص: 275)

وَلَا يَسْتَحِقُّ أَجْرَ الْمِثْلِ أَيْضًا إنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ رِبْحٌ

{ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ (278) فَإِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ } [البقرة: 278،

عَنْ جَابِرٍ، قَالَ: «لَعَنَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ آكِلَ الرِّبَا، وَمُؤْكِلَهُ، وَكَاتِبَهُ، وَشَاهِدَيْهِ»، وَقَالَ: «هُمْ سَوَاءٌ

كل قرض جر منفعة فهو ربا

I’lā as-Sunan, vol. 14, pg. 512, Idarah al-Quran W’al-‘Ulūm al-Islāmiyyah

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