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Marriage without witnesses

Shortened Question:

Marriage without witnesses

Question:

Alsalaamu Alikom,

I was a divorcee, and then I met my current husband, we fell in love and to avoid falling in haraam, we did nikah secretly, without witnesses. 6 months after nikah, we got into a major dispute and got separated, and 6 months after my husband divorced me – by sending me a text message “I divorce you, I divorce you, I divorce you”.

My questions are:

  1. Given that we done nikah without witnesses, was our nikah valid?
  2. If the nikah is considered valid, does 3 divorces consider an irrevocable divorce? And if the nikah was invalid, does this mean that the divorce did not even take place?
  3. We want to get back together now, is there a way we can do that? What will be the halal way to be together now, in the Hanafi fiqh.

Appreciate your swift response, as I am already in the 2nd month/cycle of the divorced iddah.

Thank you and jazaka Allah

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

It is a prerequisite for the validity of nikah that it be conducted in the presence of two males or one male and two female witnesses[1], all of whom are adult, sane Muslims[2].

You state that your marriage was conducted without any witnesses, thus your nikah and the 3 divorces are invalid. You should sincerely repent for the time you spent together without being married.

You state you want to be together. We  advise you get married. However in doing so, you should exercise precaution. You already had a bad experience in the context of a marriage albeit an invalid one, you surely do not want another painful experience.

Make istikhara and seek the counsel of appropriate people. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «لاَ يُلْدَغُ المُؤْمِنُ مِنْ جُحْرٍ وَاحِدٍ مَرَّتَيْنِ»

صحيح البخاري (8/ 31)

Translation:

“A believer is not stung twice (by something) out of one and the same hole” (Bukhari).

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Hafizurrahman Fatehmahomed

Student Darul Iftaa
Netherlands

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

 [1]

فتح القدير للكمال ابن الهمام (3/ 199)

وَلَا يَنْعَقِدُ نِكَاحُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إلَّا بِحُضُورِ شَاهِدَيْنِ حُرَّيْنِ عَاقِلَيْنِ بَالِغَيْنِ مُسْلِمَيْنِ رَجُلَيْنِ أَوْ رَجُلٍ وَامْرَأَتَيْنِ عُدُولًا كَانُوا أَوْ غَيْرَ عُدُولٍ أَوْ مَحْدُودِينَ فِي الْقَذْفِ) اعْلَمْ أَنَّ الشَّهَادَةَ شَرْطٌ فِي بَابِ النِّكَاحِ لِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – «لَا نِكَاحَ إلَّا بِشُهُودٍ» وَهُوَ حُجَّةٌ عَلَى مَالِكٍ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – فِي اشْتِرَاطِ الْإِعْلَانِ دُونَ الشَّهَادَةِ

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 252)

 قَالَ عَامَّةُ الْعُلَمَاءِ: إنَّ الشَّهَادَةَ شَرْطُ جَوَازِ النِّكَاحِ

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 252)

(وَلَنَا) مَا رُوِيَ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ «لَا نِكَاحَ إلَّا بِشُهُودٍ» وَرُوِيَ «لَا نِكَاحَ إلَّا بِشَاهِدَيْنِ» وَعَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا – عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «الزَّانِيَةُ الَّتِي تُنْكِحُ نَفْسَهَا بِغَيْرِ بَيِّنَةٍ»

مجمع الأنهر في شرح ملتقى الأبحر (1/ 320)

شُرِطَ أَيْضًا (حُضُورُ) شَاهِدَيْنِ فَلَوْ تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً بِشَهَادَةِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَرَسُولِهِ لَا يَجُوزُ النِّكَاحُ وَعَنْ قَاسِمٍ الصَّفَّارِ وَهُوَ كُفْرٌ مَحْضٌ؛ لِأَنَّهُ اعْتَقَدَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ – عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ – يَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ وَهَذَا كُفْرٌ

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 21)

(قَوْلُهُ: وَشُرِطَ حُضُورُ شَاهِدَيْنِ) أَيْ يَشْهَدَانِ عَلَى الْعَقْدِ، أَمَّا الشَّهَادَةُ عَلَى التَّوْكِيلِ بِالنِّكَاحِ فَلَيْسَتْ بِشَرْطٍ لِصِحَّتِهِ كَمَا قَدَّمْنَاهُ عَنْ الْبَحْرِ

[2]

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني (3/ 28)

ولا يجوز عقد النكاح بين مسلمين بشهادة الكفار والصبيان والمجانين والعبيد والمكاتبين والمدبرين والنائمين الذين لا يسمعون كلام المتعاقدين والأصمين

نکاح میں شہادت ضروری ہے، یعنی بوقت نکاح دو گواہوں کا ہونا شرط ہے جو یہاں مفقود ہے (فتاوی دار العلوم زکریا،ج3،ص554 -555)

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